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A Short History of Brazil -
Some Basic Demographic and Economic Data


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Click for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Forecast
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A Map of Brazil and some Basic Economic Data


Some very basic Historic, Demographic and Economic Data

History

Prior to discovery and settlement by Europeans, the region was sparsely inhabited by diverse Indian tribes.
1500 - Portuguese Admiral Pedro Alvares Cabral, first European to reach Brazil, initiating Portuguese colonization.
1808 - Portuguese king, fleeing Napoleon's army, transfers seat of gov't. from Lisbon to colony of Brazil.
1815 - Dom Joao VI declares Brazil a kingdom, equal with Portugal.
1822 - Dom Joao returns to Portugal; his son, Pedro, declares Brazil an independent empire and assumes throne as emperor.
1888 - Slavery of black Africans abolished.
1889 - Second emperor, Dom Pedro II, deposed, republic proclaimed.
1930 - Military coup; Getulio Vargas seizes power as dictator.
1954 - Democratic civilian rule restored.
1960 - Capital moved from Rio de Janeiro to new city of Brasilia.
1964 - Military coup; censorship imposed, political opposition quelled.
1967 - Present constitution adopted.
1985 - Civilian rule restored, Jose Sarney assumes presidency.
1989 - Brazil announces large-scale environmental plan for Amazon Basin to control destruction of this globally-important ecosystem.

LANGUAGES, ETHNIC GROUPS & RELIGIONS

Languages: Portuguese 97%, Amerind. Languages 1%, Other 2%. Ethnic Groups: White 53%, Mulatto 22%, Mestizo 12%, Black 11%, Japanese 1%, Other 1%. Religions: Roman Catholic 88%, Protestant 6%, Afro-Amer.Spirit.2%, Spiritist 2%, Atheist 1%, Other 1%.


GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP)

  • Current Population (U.N.O. July 2016) is ca 205,823,665
  • GNP(millions Purchasing Power Parity): $3.135 trillion (2016 est.), (1990) $387,901, (1991) $401,090
  • Annual GNP Growth: - 3.4%
  • GNP per Capita: $15,200 (2016 est.) %GNP for: (Agriculture) 9%, (Industry) 36%, (Services) 55%, (Defense) 0.3%


MAJOR CITIES

(Population, Latitude, Longitude, Int.CodePhone, TimeZone)
-------------------------------------------------------------
Sao Paulo: 10,063,000, 23.33S, 46.39W, 55-11, GMT-3
Rio de Janeiro: 5,603,000, 22.53S, 43.17W, 55-21, GMT-3
Belo Horizonte: 2,114,000, 19.55S, 43.56W, 55-31, GMT-3
Salvador: 1,804,000, 12.58S, 38.29W, 55-71, GMT-3
Fortaleza: 1,584,000, 3.45S, 38.35W, 55-85, GMT-3
BRASILIA: 1,568,000, 15.45S, 47.55W, 55-61, GMT-3
Nova Iguacu: 1,319,000, 22.45S, 43.28W, 55-21, GMT-3
Recife: 1,288,000, 8.06S, 34.53W, 55-81, GMT-3
Curitiba: 1,279,000, 25.25S, 49.25W, 55-41, GMT-3
Porto Alegre: 1,272,000, 30.03S, 51.10W, 55-512, GMT-3
Belem: 1,117,000, 1.27S, 48.29W, 55-91, GMT-3
Goiania: 923,000, 16.40S, 49.16W, 55-62, GMT-3
Campinas: 841,000, 22.54S, 47.05W, 55-192, GMT-3
Manaus: 810,000, 3.08S, 60.01W, 55-92, GMT-4
Sao Goncalo: 728,000, 22.51S, 43.04W, 55-21, GMT-3
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GOVERNMENT

  • Type of Government: Federal Republic
  • Government Leaders: PRESIDENT Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (1995), VICE PRESIDENT Marco MACIEL (1995)
  • Major Parties: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Liberal Front Party (PFL), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Workers Party (PT), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Democratic Workers Party (PDT), Social Democratic Party (PSD).

CULTURE & TOURISM

  • Official Language: Portuguese. English widely spoken.
  • Civilian government: re-established in 1985.
  • Visa: Required. Return ticket or letter from travel agent assuring onward passage required with application.
  • Health: Tapwater not potable. Malaria suppressants and rabies, hepatitis, and typhoid fever shots recommended. Yellow fever shot may be required.
  • Sights: Rio de Janeiro (especially Carnival), Brasilia, the Iguacu Falls (seventh largest in world), the Amazon, Salvador, Recife.
  • Climate: Tropical to semitropical. Spring and summer clothes generally suitable. Seasons reversed from northern hemisphere.
  • Currency: Real R$ (Feb.1995: R$1.00 = $1.10US).
  • Tourist Arrivals (1000s): 1,272
  • Tourist Receipts (million $): 1,225.
  • Telex Access Code(s): 391
  • Ham Radio Prefix(es): PP-PY,ZV-ZZ

EDUCATION

  • Primary: Schools 201,541, Teachers 1,055,170, Students 26,821,134, Students per Teacher 25
  • Secondary:Schools 10,244, Teachers 206,111, Students 3,339,090, Students per Teacher 16
  • Third Level: Schools 855, Teachers 122,486, Students 1,418,196, Students per Teacher 12

    GNP for Education 4.5 % Literacy Rate 81 %


NATURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIES

  • Natural Resources: Iron Ore, Manganese, Bauxite, Nickel, Uranium, Gems, Petroleum, Phosphates, Tin, Gold, Platinum, Timber, Hydroelectric Power, Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sand..
  • Agriculture: Sugarcane, Corn, Cassava, Soybeans, Oranges, Wheat, Dry Beans, Coffee, Cotton, Tomatoes, Potatoes, Cocoa, Peanuts, Rice, Beef, Cattle, Pork.
  • Major Industries: Iron & Steel, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Machinery, Vehicles, Consumer Goods, Cement, Wood Products, Shipbuilding, Metal Products, Fertilizer, Foodstuffs, Textiles, Clothing, Paper Products, Plastics, Pharmaceuticals.

IMPORTS & EXPORTS

  • Major Imports: Minerals, Petroleum, Chemicals, Fertilizers, Machinery, Vegetables, Animal Products, Cereals, Electrical Products, Electronics, Vehicles, Metals, Photographic Apparatus, Surgical Instruments, Scientific Equipment.
  • Major Exports: Processed Foods, Cocoa Beans, Seeds, Juices, Fruit Products, Meat, Animal Products, Vegetables, Metals, Vehicles, Machinery, Animal Feed, Textiles, Footwear, Petroleum Products.
  • Balance of Trade: $16,112,000,000 (1989)

ENERGY

  • Electricity:
    Capacity (1988) 49 GW
    Production (1988) 214 TW.h
    Consumption (1988) 232 TW.h
    Consumption/Capita 1.589 MW.h
  • Coal:
    Reserves (1988) 1,245 Tg
    Production (1988) 7,331 Gg
    Consumption (1988) 16,419 Gg
    Consumption/Capita 0.1 Mg
  • Natural Gas:
    Reserves (1990) 116 Gm3
    Production (1989) 3.440 Gm3
    Consumption (1988) 2.701 Gm3
    Consumption/Capita 18 m3
  • Crude Petroleum:
    Reserves (1990) 2,795 million barrels
    Production (1989) 217 million barrels
    Consumption (1988) 432 million barrels
    Consumption/Capita 3.0 barrels

AGRICULTURE

Barley (1989) 223 Gg
Coffee (1989) 1,510 Gg
Corn (1989) 26,508 Gg
Cotton (1989) 756 Gg
Eggs (1989) 1,100 Gg
Meat (1988) 2,868 Gg
Milk (1989) 13,609 Gg
Natur. Rubber(1989) 40 Gg
Oats (1989) 170 Gg
Potatoes (1989) 2,104 Gg
Rice (1989) 11,107 Gg
Soybeans (1989) 24,044 Gg
Sugar (1988) 7,905 Gg
Tea (1989) 9 Gg
Tobacco (1989) 445 Gg
Wheat (1989) 5,407 Gg

MANUFACTURING

Beer (1989) 2,892 ML
Butter (1989) 80,000 Mg
Cement (1989) 25,329 Gg
Cheese (1989) 60,000 Mg
Cigarettes (1989) 160,000,000,000
Merch.Vessels(1988) 269,000 gross registered tons
Newsprint (1989) 247,000 Mg
Paper (1989) 4,392 Gg
Passeng.Cars (1989) 782,000
Radios (1989) 6,769,000
Televisions (1989) 2,190,000
Wine (1989) 285,600 kL
Wool (1989) 32,000 Mg
           
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